Czech Republic “Butts Out” from May 31

As of May 31, 2017, a nationwide smoking ban comes into effect in the Czech Republic.

Smoking will be banned in all public indoor places including restaurants, pubs and public transit areas among others.

There are certain exceptions made for electronic cigarettes and shisha type water pipes.

Failure to observe the new legislation could result in fines as high as 5,000 Czech koruny.

An overview in English of the new legislation and what it entails can be found at this website:

Koláč – A Complex Confection

A Transatlantic Treat

The typical appearance of koláč as you’d see them in a Czech bakery.

The koláč is, without doubt, a very well known example of the sweeter side of Czech cuisine. In fact, many who have visited or been raised in the areas of America with a high degree of Czech ancestry in the local population will most certainly be familiar with a variation of the treat.

Czech immigrants to America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought the koláč with them and their descendants have proudly kept the tradition alive to the present and added a few touches to it that make it their own.

Having spoken to a number of Czechs who have tried koláč types in America and Americans who have tried traditional variants of the treat in the Czech lands, opinions are quite variable on how close present American types are to traditional Czech ones.

Most Czechs I’ve met who have tried American koláčes tend to say the pastry part of it isn’t quite right. This is a perfectly understandable reaction if the maker of the koláč used the ubiquitous “all-purpose” flour available in North American supermarkets. Anyone who has found themselves navigating the flour minefield that exists in Czech supermarkets, knows that “all-purpose” is just not a flour type that exists here and one must choose between three or four different grades of flour depending on what they are planning to make.

The koláč is part of a very large category of round cakes, very often connected to wedding celebrations, that can be found throughout the Slavonic influenced areas of Europe. Their forms are as various as the countries they come from.

Czech Koláč Varieties 

The wedding Koláč, these being of Moravian variety.

Generally speaking, the Czech koláč exists in three main types. All feature a semi-sweet pastry base with farmer’s cheese, known as tvaroh in Czech, as a filling or a bed for sweet fillings like fruit or poppy seed or walnut paste.

The wedding koláč (svatební koláče) is the smallest of the Czech varieties and, as the name suggests, is closely associated with weddings and often used as part of a wedding invitation.

They are finger food sized and usually made in large numbers to satisfy large groups of people. A Czech wedding really isn’t complete without a steady flow of these. However, one does not need to attend a wedding to indulge in this type of koláč as they are also often made for other family events where a large number of people are expected.

The standard Czech koláč, this one with blueberry filling.

The standard koláč (koláč) is the most common member of the Czech group and is available in all bakeries across the country.

These are about the size of the palm of your hand and good for snacking or desert.

Care should be taken when shopping for this type of koláč as their quality is as variable as that of the bakeries you can buy them from.

Smaller independent bakeries are your best bet for finding a good quality koláč as most chain bakeries use off-site mass production methods.

The third major type of Czech koláč is the Wallachian frgál (Valašské frgále) and it’s the giant of the family coming in at the size of a small pizza. Originating in the Moravian Wallachia region in the far east of the country, the frgál is not as frequently seen as other Czech koláč varieties.

Wallachian frgál on sale at a market stall as wholes and halves.

It’s not unusual to see stands selling frgál at festive markets in the east of the country.

Owing to their size, they are typically sold as whole pieces, halves and sometimes even quarters. Usually, they are wrapped in plastic film not only to keep them fresh but also because, unless you’re buying a quarter, they are usually the sort of thing you take home to eat later. A whole or half frgál, in my experience, is rather too rich and heavy to eat on the spot as a snack.

Make Your Own Koláč

If you’re not in the Czech lands or in the vicinity of a bakery with Czech specialties on sale, the following links will take you to some recipes that will get you quite close to a traditional Czech koláč experience:

Visiting the Neighbors – Krakow, Poland

The Cultural Heart of Poland 

Cloth Hall, a Renaissance era market which sits on the main square of Krakow’s preserved Old Town.

Located in the south of Poland on the Vistula river, Krakow is the country’s second largest city and of great importance to the country in both historical and modern contexts.

While Krakow was established as a city in the 7th century, there has been human habitation on the ground it stands on since the Stone Age.

In Poland’s imperial past, the city served as the seat of royalty and the capital of the country. It held the role of capital until the royal court was moved to Warsaw in 1596.

Krakow’s history is steeped in academia and the arts, despite many forceful attempts by foreign regimes to change it, the city has remained faithful to those cultural roots into the present day and is home to several higher education institutions, theatres, galleries and museums. The city is recognised internationally as one of the most beautiful cities in the world and it’s Old Town district holds the distinction of being one of the original UNESCO world heritage sites, inscribed onto the inaugural list in 1978 along with the nearby Wieliczka salt mine.

Perhaps Krakow’s greatest claim to fame, and what makes it one of Poland’s most visited places, is the level of preservation in the city. It was left relatively unscathed by the bombs that levelled so many other European cities in the Second World War and, as such, can claim a large percentage of original architecture to still be standing while other cities needed to be rebuilt almost entirely.

In late December of 2016, we took a few days in Krakow and enjoyed it very much. Here’s but a small sampling of what one can do and see in a short period in and around the city:

The Old Town 

The morning light hits the Barbican and the Florian gate, remnants of the city’s medieval defenses.

The logical place to start talking about Krakow is with it’s primary attraction, the preserved Old Town district. Our hotel was an easy ten minute walk from the area.

Entering the area from the north, the first structures you’ll see are the Barbican defensive rampart and Florian gate that date to the 15th century. Florian gate forms part of a preserved section of the old city walls. The Barbican is a heavily fortified building with seven watchtowers and 130 openings through which the city protectors could do battle with potential invaders. The Barbican is the largest structure of it’s sort in Poland and the best preserved of it’s kind in Europe.

Further in, Old Town is filled with numerous buildings representing a wide variety of architechural styles. Architectural highlights of the district include the Slowacki theatre, Main Market Square and buildings connected to Jagiellonian University.

St. Mary’s basilica as seen from the top of the Town Hall Tower.

With an area of 400 square metres, the Main Market Square is the largest medieval square in Europe. It dates to the 1250s and contains four architectural highlights: the Renaissance style Cloth Hall, the Gothic St. Mary’s basilica, the 70 metre high Town Hall Tower and the Romanesque Church of St. Adalbert.

The Town Hall Tower is the last remnant of the city’s old town hall. The rest of the town hall was demolished in the early 19th century due to damage.

It is possible to go to the top of the tower, but it bears mentioning that it is certainly not an attraction for claustrophobic people or those with poor physical health or mobility issues of any sort. While there are one or two places to rest on the way up, the individual steps are unusually high and narrow and the staircase takes some unexpected turns along the way. Additionally, the staircase is only about one person wide and poorly illuminated. The views are rewarding if you choose to make the climb up, but it is definitely for the more intrepid and fit visitor.

The Neo-Gothic main building of Jagiellonian University.

Along the western edge of Old Town, you can find buildings connected to Jagiellonian University. This institution, established in 1364, is one of the world’s oldest still functioning universities. It counts Nicolaus Copernicus and Karol Wojtyla, who later became Pope John Paul II, among notable alumni.

At the southern tip of Old Town is the imposing Wawel castle complex. The castle and adjoining buildings represent a mix of architectural styles that include elements of Baroque, Gothic, Renaissance and Romanesque among others.

The castle is a very popular spot to visit and offers a range of tours. However, it should be noted that the number of tickets available per day for some of the tours are quite limited in order to protect the exhibits. It is best to visit the castle website to select a tour and reserve tickets on line if possible.

Going off Centre 

The Old Synagogue in the Kazimierz district, Krakow’s old Jewish Quarter.

A short distance to the south of Old Town is the Kazimierz district. This area has a notably different feel to Old Town. This is largely due to the fact that it has been the home of the city’s Jewish quarter since the 13th century.

The area fell into decline and disrepair under Socialist rule after the Second World War, but a change of fortune after the fall of that regime marked the start of a renewed interest in the area and a great deal of restoration work has been done since then. As a result, the district is popular with tourists.

A structure of particular note in the area is the Old Synagogue. The building dates to the 1400s and is the oldest synagogue in Poland. It is also a very rare example of a fortified synagogue; it was not only built for worship, but also built strongly enough to act as a community shelter against siege.

A guide at the Stained Glass Museum describes how finer details are applied to glass.

A short walk to the west of Old Town took us to the Stained Glass Museum and a very informative tour, from start to finish, of what goes into creating a work of art in this medium.

As well as a museum, this facility is also an active producer of stained glass windows and has been since 1902. They have done work for clients around the world and many of the stained glass windows you see in Krakow are their work.

If you were ever left wondering how some of the stained glass windows you’ve seen were created, this museum should definitely go on your itinerary if you visit Krakow. English language tours run Tuesday to Saturday on the hour and there is a small cafe on the premises.

Further Afield 

The Wieliczka salt mine, an easily reachable attraction from Krakow.

If you wanted to venture outside of Krakow, there are attractions for you within reach of the city. Most notable among those attractions are the Wieliczka salt mines and the preserved Auschwitz concentration camp complex. While you can join organized group tours from Krakow to both places, neither is particularly difficult to reach from the city on your own if you prefer to save some money.

If you like to theme your holidays around UNESCO world heritage sites, Krakow and vicinity will reward you. Beyond Old Town, both the salt mines and Auschwitz are UNESCO listed. For the more devout visitor, the Calvary sanctuary and pilgrimage in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska to the south of the city is also UNESCO territory.

Paying a Visit and Learning More  

The view across the main courtyard of Wawel castle.

Being a city of both national and international importance, Krakow is well connected and accessible by air, rail and road.

As a university town and cultural centre, linguistic flexibility in the city is not difficult to find. English is widely spoken and the city is prepared for and welcoming to visitors.

To see a wider range of what Krakow and it’s surroundings offer to visitors, any of the three following links will give you a good start to planning your own trip there: