Designed and constructed between 1927 and 1929, Villa Stiassni is one of Brno’s many and varied architectural attractions.
Tucked away in the affluent surroundings of the city’s Masaryk Quarter, Villa Stiassni is hidden from view by the many trees which fill its extensive grounds and is only accessible by a single gate on Hroznová street which runs past it.
Once inside the grounds, visitors are greeted by the massive villa, with all the straight edges and purist lines that denote the Functionalist stylings of the interwar period. However, encased in that Modernist shell is an interior more akin to a late 19th century aristocratic manor with all the trappings and status symbols of socially elite ownership.
How could such oppulent interiors find themselves wrapped in an exterior of minimalist sensibilities when they flew directly in the face of the basic tennets of Modernism?
Let’s spend some time with Villa Stiassni and find out:
An Architect and his Customers
The primary architect for Villa Stiassni was Slovak born Ernst Wiesner (1890-1971). Wiesner was one of the most important and influential architects in Brno’s burgeoning Modernism trend of the time. Several buildings in Brno are creditable in whole or in part to him.
The Stiassnis, Alfred (1883-1961) and Hermine (1889-1962), owned several properties in Brno with this villa being their primary residence where they lived along with their only child, Susanne (1923-2005).
Alfred was a wealthy industrialist building his fortune in Brno’s thriving textile industry of the period.
Hermine had been born to wealth, her father a prominent figure in the coal industry. She had grown up surrounded by the highly visible status symbols of her class and was determined to hold onto and flaunt them in the home she and Alfred called their own.
It was in Hermine’s determination to keep and display her and Alfred’s wealth that the stylistic dischord between the villa’s exteriors and interiors had its origins.
With Wiesner pushing for Modernism inside and out while Hermine outright refused to be without the comforts of her wealthy upbringing, a compromise was in order.
While Wiesner tended to the design of the villa exteriors and the interiors of the villa’s service wing, design of the Stiassnis’ living quarters was tended to by Franz Wilfert of Vienna.
The affluence of the living quarters satisfied Hermine while the spartan minimalism of the service wing kept touch with Wiesner’s own vision for the villa.
Beyond the villa itself, Wiesner laid out the basic concepts for the surrounding gardens. True to Modernist style philosophies, the gardens were spacious and designed to work in harmony with the villa structure.
The lower, southern part of the garden was designed to afford a great deal of privacy and was planted with many trees and shrubs to accomplish the task. It is almost impossible to see into the villa property from the south. By contrast, the northern section of the garden offers some fantastic panoramic views of the areas surrounding the villa.
The Stiassnis were a very active family not only socially but also physically. The family was very involved in sports pursuits year round and evidence of their passion for fitness can be found in the tennis court and swimming pool that are included in the gardens as well as a variety of exercise equipment built into some rooms inside the villa.
Departure and Decline
Though the villa bears their name, the Stiassnis only lived there for nine years. Their Jewish faith forced them to leave both the villa and the country in the face of impending German occupation. Initially, they escaped to Great Britain though later spent time in Brazil before ultimately settling in America. Descendants of the family still live in California today.
Ernst Wiesner fled the country in Spring of 1939 and spent the war years in Great Britain. Though he briefly returned to Brno after the war, he left again in 1948. He lived out the remainder of his life in Great Britain, mostly in Liverpool, where he died in 1971.
As with many of the properties owned by wealthy Czechs in the interwar period, Villa Stiassni was siezed and used by the Germans during the Second World War and subsequently taken into state control after the war.
From the post war nationalization until the 1990s, most residents of Brno knew the structure as the “Government Villa” as it was used by the government for ceremonial purposes and to accomodate VIP guests when they visited.
During this period, particularly through the 1970s and 1980s, the interiors of the villa were subject to a great deal of change and remodeling. Much of the remodeling rendered the villa interiors unrecognizable.
During the 1990s, the villa was privatized and used for business purposes as well as rented out for weddings and other social functions.
Since 2009, the villa has been under the jurisdiction and management of the National Monument Institute. Under this organization’s watch, the villa has been largely restored to the appearance it held while the Stiassnis called it home.
Restoration and Revival
In 2010, funding was received to begin restoration of the villa. Restorations lasted until 2014, when the villa was opened to the public, and included the removal of much of the remodeling that had been done through the 1970s and 80s.
Fortunately for those restoring the Villa, Hermine Stiassni had been a passionate and prolific painter and many of her paintings of the villa survived and gave researchers and workers much needed insights into some of the finer details and nuances of the living quarters that she knew so well.
The gardens were renovated at the same time as the villa, though some guesswork was required in the renovation as original plans did not survive to the present. In fact, the precise identity of the architect Wiesner hired to do the in-depth design work on the garden is a matter of speculation at present.
Also during restoration, new buildings were added on the north part of the property to serve as educational and research facilities dedicated to the restoration of modern architecture.
The villa is registered as a national cultural monument.
Paying a Visit and Learning More
Owing to its educational and research purposes, Villa Stiassni has more restricted public access than other attractions.
Typically the interiors are open for guided tours Friday through Sunday, a reservation is recomended for those tours. If you do not understand Czech, there are texts available in English and a few other languages to help you follow along.
The villa gardens can be visited without a guide.
The following link is the villa’s official page, where you can find out more about tour times and reservations:
The koláč is, without doubt, a very well known example of the sweeter side of Czech cuisine. In fact, many who have visited or been raised in the areas of America with a high degree of Czech ancestry in the local population will most certainly be familiar with a variation of the treat.
Czech immigrants to America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought the koláč with them and their descendants have proudly kept the tradition alive to the present and added a few touches to it that make it their own.
Having spoken to a number of Czechs who have tried koláč types in America and Americans who have tried traditional variants of the treat in the Czech lands, opinions are quite variable on how close present American types are to traditional Czech ones.
Most Czechs I’ve met who have tried American koláčes tend to say the pastry part of it isn’t quite right. This is a perfectly understandable reaction if the maker of the koláč used the ubiquitous “all-purpose” flour available in North American supermarkets. Anyone who has found themselves navigating the flour minefield that exists in Czech supermarkets, knows that “all-purpose” is just not a flour type that exists here and one must chose between three or four different grades of flour depending on what they are planning to make.
The koláč is part of a very large category of round cakes, very often connected to wedding celebrations, that can be found throughout the Slavonic influenced areas of Europe. Their forms are as various as the countries they come from.
Czech Koláč Varieties
Generally speaking, the Czech koláč exists in three main types. All feature a semi-sweet pastry base with farmer’s cheese, known as tvaroh in Czech, as a filling or a bed for sweet fillings like fruit or poppy seed or walnut paste.
The wedding koláč (svatební koláče) is the smallest of the Czech varieties and, as the name suggests, is closely associated with weddings and often used as part of a wedding invitation.
They are finger food sized and usually made in large numbers to satisfy large groups of people. A Czech wedding really isn’t complete without a steady flow of these. However, one does not need to attend a wedding to indulge in this type of koláč as they are also often made for other family events where a large number of people are expected.
The standard koláč (koláč) is the most common member of the Czech group and is available in all bakeries across the country.
These are about the size of the palm of your hand and good for snacking or desert.
Care should be taken when shopping for this type of koláč as their quality is as variable as that of the bakeries you can buy them from.
Smaller independent bakeries are your best bet for finding a good quality koláč as most chain bakeries use off-site mass production methods.
The third major type of Czech koláč is the Wallachian frgál (Valašské frgále) and it’s the giant of the family coming in at the size of a small pizza. Originating in the Moravian Wallachia region in the far east of the country, the frgál is not as frequently seen as other Czech koláč varieties.
It’s not unusual to see stands selling frgál at festive markets in the east of the country.
Owing to their size, they are typically sold as whole pieces, halves and sometimes even quarters. Usually, they are wrapped in plastic film not only to keep them fresh but also because, unless you’re buying a quarter, they are usually the sort of thing you take home to eat later. A whole or half frgál, in my experience, is rather too rich and heavy to eat on the spot as a snack.
Make Your Own Koláč
If you’re not in the Czech lands or in the vicinity of a bakery with Czech specialties on sale, the following links will take you to some recipes that will get you quite close to a traditional Czech koláč experience:
Three wheel automobiles are nothing new or unique; the world’s first practical motor vehicle, designed by Karl Benz in the 1880s, was a three wheeler.
Since the very beginnings of automotive production, many companies from around the world have been developing three wheel vehicles alongside four wheel ones. Some companies have even specialised in three wheeler types.
The Czech contribution to three wheel motoring was the diminutive and simple Velorex. Even among other three wheel designs, the Velorex is a distinctive shape: A durable plasticised textile cover stretched over a tube steel frame puttering along the road at modest speed under the power of a small motorcycle engine, the Velorex seems more a tent on wheels than any sort of credible automobile.
Such deceptive appearances belie a machine that was ingenious in simplicity and wildly successful in the early post WWII economies and in several European nations that came under Socialist governments soon after.
In a production run that lasted from 1945 to 1971, over 15,000 Velorex three wheelers were built with nearly a full half of the production being exported to other Socialist European countries.
That said, let’s spend some time with this little Czech three wheeler that has gone from being a car to a cult:
The Right Machine at the Right Time
The work of the Stránský brothers, František (1914-1954) and Mojmír (1924-2011), design of the three wheeler that would eventually be called the Velorex started in 1936 in their bicycle repair shop in the vicinity of Česká Třebová, a small city in the north of the country.
The timing of their design could not have been better. The world was still in the throes of the Great Depression and a few short years away from the outbreak of the Second World War. As with so many nations, the industial base of Czechoslovakia would have trouble meeting public demand for many items, including automobiles in the immediate post war economy.
As with the bulk of three wheel vehicles, economics inspired the Stránský’s machine. They took primary inspiration from the designs of the Morgan Motor Company of Great Britain. Morgan had made a name for themselves in three wheel vehicle design from their foundation in 1910 through to the end of the 1930s and certainly were a good example for the Stránskýs to follow.
Following the Morgan example, the Stránský brothers designed their machine with two wheels at the front and a single one at the rear. However, unlike Morgan designs, the Stránskýs placed the engine in the rear of the vehicle. The brothers called their creation the Oskar. The Oskar prototype was built in 1943 and differed from production versions by having sheet metal covering as opposed to textile.
The Stránský’s goal was to create a machine that could fill a gap that existed between motorcycles and standard four wheel cars; a vehicle that was large enough to carry two adults at reasonable speeds while being light and small enough that it could be powered by motorcycle engines.
The brothers built an intitial batch of 12 Oskar cars in 1945 that were equiped with a variety of motorcycle engines and could be built for approximately a quarter the price of a four wheel car.
In 1950, the Stránský’s workshop was placed under the control of another small company called Velo and their manufacturing facilities were moved further north to the town of Solnice in 1951.
Produced under the name Oskar until 1956, the vehicle enjoyed a year on year increase of production from the 1951 total of 120. By 1954, the average production was 40 vehicles per month.
1954 marked a significant change as the Stránskýs were cut off from any further involvement in their creation. That year, František died in an accident while test driving a prototype for a new version of the car while Mojmír was removed from the company for refusing membership in the Communist Party which was ruling Czechoslovakia at the time.
By 1956, the vehicle’s name had been changed from Oskar to Velorex and late 1950s production was totalling around 120 per month. in the early 1960s, a second production line was opened in nearby Rychnov nad Kněžnou.
The Velorex is believed by many to be the simplest motor vehicle ever made that was still practical. Certainly the simplicity and the economy that came with it was a huge selling point in favour of it.
The simplicity of it meant that it could be produced quickly enough that buyers did not need to wait as long to have their Velorex as they would to have a standard four wheel car. The simplicity also meant that there was very little that could go wrong with a Velorex that the owner could not fix themselves with basic tools.
From a practicality standpoint, the Velorex could attain speeds that were quite adequate for driving in towns and were very useful for everyday errands and as runabouts for companies to use in business. Additionally, due to the power output of the engines used in them, the Velorex could be operated legally on a motorcycle license.
While these three wheelers were widely exported and popular in the Eastern Bloc countries, their availability in Czechoslovakia was subject to some limitations. Primarily, they were directed at people with disabilities who might have trouble operating a standard car. The government of the day offered generous purchasing subsidies to anyone who passed an examination to prove their disability and qualify them to obtain a Velorex.
Collectively, three wheelers built under the Oskar and Velorex names covered a range of four main models.
All versions were powered by engines made by either the ČZ or Jawa motocycle companies and used forced air to cool the engines. The driver started the engine via a hand lever near the steering wheel; this lever was a modification of the kick start mechanism typical to motorcycles.
The ulimate version, the Velorex 16/350, was equiped with a two cylinder engine that allowed it to cruise at a respectable 60 km/h and could push it to a maximum speed of around 85 km/h.
Life After Three Wheels
After three wheeler production ceased in 1971, Velorex made a failed attempt to enter the four wheel automobile market. By the time they made the attempt, the market was well saturated and they simply could not compete with the likes of Škoda and Trabant who were dominating that sector.
From the mid 1970s, the Velorex name became prominent on a long series of motorcycle sidecars. The earliest Velorex sidecars were built with Jawa motorcycles in mind as their companion pieces though it would not be long before they were adapted for use with a variety of motorcycle makes.
Velorex did very well in the sidecar business and developed a worldwide reputation for products that were affordable and of good quality.
Velorex Today and Learning More
While the historical Velorex company did not survive the fall of Socialism, their legacy is kept alive today by the Velorexport company and the Velorex name is still a fixture on motorcycle sidecars today as a result.
In spite of all practical reasons for owning a Velorex three wheeler being long in the past, a very strong fan base has kept the vehicle type alive over the years. Many have been restored, dedicated clubs have been set up for them around the world, Velorex rallies and meets are organised and a huge spare parts market exists to support them.
If you come to the Czech lands, several museums have three wheelers in their collections to view and restored running examples are not particularly rare to see.
Given the worldwide popularity the type has developed, there might just be one near you.
The following links will take you to sites with further information on the Velorex three wheeler:
One goal I have for Beyond Prague in 2017 is to update as many older posts as I’m able while still making sure new posts are made. A big part of that is updating the sections connected to Brno. This post will show you what I’ve accomplished towards that goal from January up to now.
The general page for Brno has been given fresh photographs and a slight text revision:
One does not need to be in Brno for very long or to have a particularly deep interest in architecture in order to take note of the city’s varied array of building styles. Everything from medieval Gothic to examples of contemporary Deconstructivism and Eco-architectural styles can be found within the city limits.
Particularly notable in Brno’s architectural landscape are the numerous examples of early 20th century Modernism that have survived to the present. From family homes to offices and the city’s sprawling exhibition centre, Modernist structures dot the city. Such prominence of that specific movement is quite fitting as Brno played a major role in the development of it; many practitioners of Modernist design spent some time working in Brno in the early 20th century.
The best known Modernist structure in Brno is the UNESCO listed Villa Tugendhat in the city’s Černá Pole district. Designed by the legendary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969), it is considered to be an outstanding example of the priciples of Modernist style at the international level.
The Minds Behind the Monument
While the villa’s commission and start of construction took place in 1928, the seed for it was planted in the early 1920s.
Greta Tugendhat (1903-1970) was still married to her first husband in the early 1920s and spend much of that time living in Germany. It was during her time in Germany that she became particularly taken with the works of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Modernist style in general. It was Greta’s wish to have a modern, uncluttered house to call her home.
After her first marriage fell apart, she married Fritz Tugendhat (1895-1958) and they settled in Brno. The Tugendhats were prominent members of Brno’s Jewish community and Greta’s family, who had been in Moravia since the 17th century, had built a fortune over generations in the textile and sugar industries. The land on which Villa Tugendhat stands was a gift to Greta from her father upon her marriage to Fritz.
With land to build on, Greta was able to make contact with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe through mutual acquaintences and invite him to Brno and commission him to design the modern home she had dreamed of.
Mies was impressed with the plot of land to build on as well as the quality of workmanship in Brno’s existing buildings and had no qualms in hiring a local construction company, Mořic and Artur Eisler, to carry out the construction.
With wide freedom of design given to him by Greta and her father financing the construction, Mies was set to create a structure that would at once embody Greta’s dream home and his own “Less is more” design philosophy to the fullest.
From Vision to Reality
The basic philosophy of Modernism is that the aesthetic and appeal of a building should come from the structures and materials used in making it rather than any extra decoration. Additionally, spaces should flow into each other and work seamlessly with the human activity inside as well as the natural world outside.
Staying faithful to such ideals, Mies and his partners in the project exercised a great deal of care in both structural design and selection of materials when creating the villa, associated fixtures and furniture to ensure that everything worked together perfectly including how the villa was designed to work harmoniously with the slope of the land it was built upon. The construction of the villa lasted from 1928 to 1930.
Part of the villa’s uniqueness lies in the use of a structural steel framework, it was the first detached residential building in the world to be built as such. Sections of the steel framework are on full view throughout the villa and those sections which run through living areas are covered in chromed cladding.
Another notable aspect of the villa interior includes a translucent onyx wall which separates the livng room from the study and gives a warm glow to the rooms when the sun is low in the sky.
The living room, which overlooks the villa garden, includes a large window which can be completely lowered into the floor by electric motors to create an uninterupted flow of exterior and interior space and give a panoramic view towards the city centre.
Changing Fortunes and Decline
The Tugendhats moved into the completed villa in December of 1930 and stayed there until the impending German occupation forced the family to leave the country for Switzerland in May of 1938. By early 1941, they had relocated to Caracas, Venezuela.
1938 also saw the villa’s architect leave Europe for America. He settled in Chicago, worked as a university professor, set up his own architecural firm and eventually achieved American citizenship over the years.
Under German occupation, the villa was used by the Gestapo as well as an aircraft engine manufacturer among others. It was in this period that much of the furniture was removed and extensive rebuilding of the interiors was carried out. During the period of German occupation, the onyx wall was bricked in and concealed, an action which most certainly led to it’s survival.
Spring of 1945 saw the arrival of the Soviet army to “liberate” the city. The villa suffered particularly under Soviet use. They used the living areas as stables for their horses and used much of the wood that remained in the structure for fuel.
For a period of five years, starting in August of 1945, the villa was used as a dancing school. The state took possession of the villa in October of 1950 and it was used by the city’s nearby children’s hospital as a rehabilitation facility until the late 1960s.
The late 1960s and the 1970s were a true low for the villa. Toward the end of the 1960s, local Brno architect, František Kalivoda, contacted Greta Tugendhat and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe to discuss the possible restoration of the villa; both Greta and Mies were quite supportive of the idea. However, fortune would not be on their side.
1969 marked the begining of “Normalization” in the former Czechoslovakia; it was a very oppressive backlash by the Socialist government in the wake of the quashed Prague Spring demonstrations of 1968. Under this movement, any attempts at reconstruction of the villa were blockaded by the state.
Greta Tugendhat, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and František Kalivoda all died between 1969 and 1971. Their deaths marked the end of any sort of work on the villa for approximately a decade.
Reconstructions and Restoration
The ownership of the villa shifted from the state to the city of Brno in 1980.
Between 1981 and 1985, the villa received and extensive renovation and a basic restoration of functional equipment. While this did ensure that the building was kept structurally sound and accumulated structural damage was repaired, no regard was given to historical accuracy. The city saw it as a place to host important guests and political functions; they made little allowance for the research required to return the villa to it’s former glory.
In 1994, the villa came under the jurisdiction of Brno’s city museum and remains so today. In 2001, the villa was inscribed on the UNESCO list as a World Heritage Site and research to restore it to historical accuracy began in earnest in the same time period.
While most of the research for restoration was carried out in the early 2000s, several delays pushed back the start of the work until 2010.
The villa reopened to the public in 2012, after two years of restorations, and is one of the city’s most popular tourist attractions.
Visiting Villa Tugendhat and Learning More
Villa Tugendhat is not difficult to access by Brno public transport and a small bit of walking.
As it is a very popular attraction and the number of visitors is limited, booking well ahead is required if you wish to see the interiors. Availability of tours, tour languages and admission prices can be found on the villa website. Tour reservations and ticket purchases can also be made at the website.
The following two websites will give you a good background of the villa’s history as well as what makes it architecturally unique.
Located in the south of Poland on the Vistula river, Krakow is the country’s second largest city and of great importance to the country in both historical and modern contexts.
While Krakow was established as a city in the 7th century, there has been human habitation on the ground it stands on since the Stone Age.
In Poland’s imperial past, the city served as the seat of royalty and the capital of the country. It held the role of capital until the royal court was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
Krakow’s history is steeped in academia and the arts, despite many forceful attempts by foreign regimes to change it, the city has remained faithful to those cultural roots into the present day and is home to several higher education institutions, theatres, galleries and museums. The city is recognised internationally as one of the most beautiful cities in the world and it’s Old Town district holds the distinction of being one of the original UNESCO world heritage sites, inscribed onto the inaugural list in 1978 along with the nearby Wieliczka salt mine.
Perhaps Krakow’s greatest claim to fame, and what makes it one of Poland’s most visited places, is the level of preservation in the city. It was left relatively unscathed by the bombs that levelled so many other European cities in the Second World War and, as such, can claim a large percentage of original architecture to still be standing while other cities needed to be rebuilt almost entirely.
In late December of 2016, we took a few days in Krakow and enjoyed it very much. Here’s but a small sampling of what one can do and see in a short period in and around the city:
The Old Town
The logical place to start talking about Krakow is with it’s primary attraction, the preserved Old Town district. Our hotel was an easy ten minute walk from the area.
Entering the area from the north, the first structures you’ll see are the Barbican defensive rampart and Florian gate that date to the 15th century. Florian gate forms part of a preserved section of the old city walls. The Barbican is a heavily fortified building with seven watchtowers and 130 openings through which the city protectors could do battle with potential invaders. The Barbican is the largest structure of it’s sort in Poland and the best preserved of it’s kind in Europe.
Further in, Old Town is filled with numerous buildings representing a wide variety of architechural styles. Architectural highlights of the district include the Slowacki theatre, Main Market Square and buildings connected to Jagiellonian University.
With an area of 400 square metres, the Main Market Square is the largest medieval square in Europe. It dates to the 1250s and contains four architectural highlights: the Renaissance style Cloth Hall, the Gothic St. Mary’s basilica, the 70 metre high Town Hall Tower and the Romanesque Church of St. Adalbert.
The Town Hall Tower is the last remnant of the city’s old town hall. The rest of the town hall was demolished in the early 19th century due to damage.
It is possible to go to the top of the tower, but it bears mentioning that it is certainly not an attraction for claustrophobic people or those with poor physical health or mobility issues of any sort. While there are one or two places to rest on the way up, the individual steps are unusually high and narrow and the staircase takes some unexpected turns along the way. Additionally, the staircase is only about one person wide and poorly illuminated. The views are rewarding if you choose to make the climb up, but it is definitely for the more intrepid and fit visitor.
Along the western edge of Old Town, you can find buildings connected to Jagiellonian University. This institution, established in 1364, is one of the world’s oldest still functioning universities. It counts Nicolaus Copernicus and Karol Wojtyla, who later became Pope John Paul II, among notable alumni.
At the southern tip of Old Town is the imposing Wawel castle complex. The castle and adjoining buildings represent a mix of architectural styles that include elements of Baroque, Gothic, Renaissance and Romanesque among others.
The castle is a very popular spot to visit and offers a range of tours. However, it should be noted that the number of tickets available per day for some of the tours are quite limited in order to protect the exhibits. It is best to visit the castle website to select a tour and reserve tickets on line if possible.
Going off Centre
A short distance to the south of Old Town is the Kazimierz district. This area has a notably different feel to Old Town. This is largely due to the fact that it has been the home of the city’s Jewish quarter since the 13th century.
The area fell into decline and disrepair under Socialist rule after the Second World War, but a change of fortune after the fall of that regime marked the start of a renewed interest in the area and a great deal of restoration work has been done since then. As a result, the district is popular with tourists.
A structure of particular note in the area is the Old Synagogue. The building dates to the 1400s and is the oldest synagogue in Poland. It is also a very rare example of a fortified synagogue; it was not only built for worship, but also built strongly enough to act as a community shelter against siege.
A short walk to the west of Old Town took us to the Stained Glass Museum and a very informative tour, from start to finish, of what goes into creating a work of art in this medium.
As well as a museum, this facility is also an active producer of stained glass windows and has been since 1902. They have done work for clients around the world and many of the stained glass windows you see in Krakow are their work.
If you were ever left wondering how some of the stained glass windows you’ve seen were created, this museum should definitely go on your itinerary if you visit Krakow. English language tours run Tuesday to Saturday on the hour and there is a small cafe on the premises.
If you wanted to venture outside of Krakow, there are attractions for you within reach of the city. Most notable among those attractions are the Wieliczka salt mines and the preserved Auschwitz concentration camp complex. While you can join organized group tours from Krakow to both places, neither is particularly difficult to reach from the city on your own if you prefer to save some money.
If you like to theme your holidays around UNESCO world heritage sites, Krakow and vicinity will reward you. Beyond Old Town, both the salt mines and Auschwitz are UNESCO listed. For the more devout visitor, the Calvary sanctuary and pilgrimage in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska to the south of the city is also UNESCO territory.
Paying a Visit and Learning More
Being a city of both national and international importance, Krakow is well connected and accessible by air, rail and road.
As a university town and cultural centre, linguistic flexibility in the city is not difficult to find. English is widely spoken and the city is prepared for and welcoming to visitors.
To see a wider range of what Krakow and it’s surroundings offer to visitors, any of the three following links will give you a good start to planning your own trip there: